Séminaire de linguistique : "Phonétique et Phonologie"

Séminaire
24 mai 2019 14:00 - 17:00
salle TICE/TBI B1.619 - Université de Lille - Domaine du pont de Bois

Jean-Luc Schwartz GIPSA-lab, CNRS, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble France

L’interface phonétique-phonologie à la lumière des relations perceptuo-motrices

La question de l’interface phonétique-phonologie est centrale dans l’étude de la communication parlée. Il s’y joue la nature des représentations cognitives et des processus permettant au cerveau humain d’interfacer les structures phonologiques avec les signaux de la communication, autour de questions comme les rôles respectifs des gestes et des sons, le contenu des invariants permettant de caractériser les phonèmes, les principes de catégorisation et de décodage perceptif, et en miroir les principes d’encodage et de contrôle moteur en production. Or ces questions sont le plus souvent posées indépendamment pour le locuteur et pour l’auditeur, conduisant dans le domaine de la parole à séparer production et perception, et dans le domaine de la phonologie à ne pas réellement articuler phonologie pour le locuteur et phonologie pour l’auditeur. La perspective actuelle est au contraire de réinstaller le lien perceptuo-moteur au centre des constructions théoriques. C’est dans ce cadre que s’inscrit depuis plusieurs années notre approche, qui allie données expérimentales (comportementales, neurocognitives, développementales), modélisation computationnelle et réflexions sur la théorie phonologique. J’aborderai ces différents points dans mon exposé, autour du modèle computationnel bayésien COSMO, « Communication Objects by Sensori-Motor Operations ».

Références :

Barnaud, M.L., Bessière, P., Diard, J., & Schwartz, J.L.  (2018). Reanalyzing neurocognitive data on the role of the motor system in speech perception within COSMO, a Bayesian perceptuo-motor model of speech communication. Brain & Language, 187, 19-32.

Bucci J, Perrier P, Gerber S, Schwartz J-L (2018). Vowel Reduction in Coratino (South Italy): Phonological and Phonetic Perspectives. Phonetica 2018. doi: 10.1159/000490947

Laurent, R., Barnaud, M.-L., Schwartz, J.-L., Bessière, P., & Diard, J. (2017). The complementary roles of auditory and motor information evaluated in a Bayesian perceptuo-motor model of speech perception. Psychological Review, 124, 572-602.

Moulin-Frier, C., Diard, J., Schwartz, J.L., & Bessière, P. (2015). COSMO (“Communicating about Objects using Sensory-Motor Operations”): a Bayesian modeling framework for studying speech communication and the emergence of phonological systems. Journal of Phonetics, 53, 5-41.

Patri, J.F., Perrier, P., Schwartz, J.L., & Diard, J. (2018). What drives the perceptual change resulting from speech motor adaptation? Evaluation of hypotheses in a Bayesian modeling framework. Plos Biol. Comp., January 22, 2018

Schwartz, J.L., Basirat, A., Ménard, L., & Sato, M. (2012). The Perception for Action Control Theory (PACT): a perceptuo-motor theory of speech perception. Journal of NeuroLinguistics, 25, 336-354.

Schwartz, J.L., & Bucci, J. (2018). Could elements in ET be articulatory-acoustic rather than solely acoustic? Arguments from phonetics and phonology. Elements, State of the Art and Perspectives, International Conference, LLING, Nantes, June 2018.

This work was supported by the European Research Council under the 7th European Community Program (FP7/2007–2013 Grant Agreement No. 339152 – “Speech Unit(e)s”).


Paolo Mairano, STL, Université de Lille.

Disentangling effects of L1 phonology and written input on L2 pronunciation and phonological awareness

Several studies have investigated the effects of L1 phonology on L2 speech production, while only recently researchers have started investigating the effects of orthographic forms on L2 pronunciation. Our research team has revealed that Italian speakers tend to pronounce longer consonants in correspondence of double consonants in the spelling, leading to the production of pseudo-minimal pairs such as "finish" vs "Finnish" (the latter being pronounced with a longer [n] than the former). The production of such pseudo-geminates in L2 English is tested with data of Italian learners in Italy and Italian late bilinguals living in the UK, and is compared with an orthography-independent L1 effect (voice onset time). Acoustic measurements in different experimental conditions show that the orthography-induced effect (pseudo-gemination) is more persistent than L1 orthography-independent effects (voice onset time) and is produced in speech elicited with and without written input. Additionally, rhyming judgments of L2 speakers suggest that pseudo-gemination is also part of L2 speakers' phonological awareness. All evidence suggests that orthography is responsible for establishing a phonological category in L2 English (gemination) which is not present in productions of native English speakers. Finally, we present a preliminary pilot study on perception, where we try to show that even phonological expectations of Italian speakers of L2 English may be affected by orthography.


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